This article provides guidelines and examples for the ASA citation style. It may be helpful for students who want to have perfect references in their works. Firstly, let’s take a look at what the ASA reference style is.
What Is Asa Style Reference?
ASA reference style is developed by the American Sociologist Association. It is created for writers getting ready to publish their articles in sociology journals or working on their research papers. It may be easy for experienced ones to make references correctly. However, for those who lack the time or don’t know the peculiarities, it may be challenging. Our guide provides you with information on how to lake correct citation and bibliography for various kinds of both written and electronic sources
How to Make an Excellent Asa Citation
To create ASA citation, you need to take into account some peculiarities. You should be attentive, check everything twice. Firstly, let’s get acquainted with the main formatting requirements.
- double space whole text (footnotes and references also) and use 12-point type.
- make 1-inch margins on every side
- when necessary, involve the additional page with a brief (150-200 words) abstract and a heading
- begin with a full title written on an individual page
- involve a separate title page, involving the paper title, author’s name, the whole wordage (with footnotes and references), title footnote (involving the authors’ first and last names, addresses, their credits, grants, and acknowledgments)
- make a bibliography according to from-a-to-z-order
- if the date is unavailable, use “N.d.” instead
- if there is more than one author, reverse only the name of the first author
- italicize the book or periodical title, underline if italicizing is unavailable
ASA Originality Requirements
The American Sociological Association developed strict requirements concerning plagiarism the author needs to take into account:
- when you take data or material from work, written by another author, published or unpublished, or available online, you need to obligatory reference the author
- make sure their works don’t include any plagiarism, even if quoted or paraphrased, the references should be included
In-text references should include the author’s last name, a publication year, paging if you make a citation of a specific page. Check out some following examples:
If the author’s name is included in the text, you should add it with the publishing year in parenthesis.
Example: Smith (1987)
If there is no author’s name, add the author’s last name and the publishing year in parenthesis
Example: as mentioned in a recent study (Williams 1865)
Place the paging after the publishing year, separated by parenthesis, with no using space between the paging and a colon.
Example: the recent study by Gouldner (1978:97)
Notice! Don’t use the old unacceptable formats of text references, such as (Gouldner, 1978 p. 97).
In case there is more than one author, the names of all of them should be mentioned.
Example: for two authors (Williams and Dreiser 1995:356), for three authors (Williams, Dreiser, and Smith 1995:356)
If a text has more than three authors, you need to use the term “et al” without the punctuation marks.
Example: the recent study (Smith at al. 2011)
If the work cited was republished from the previous edition, mention the earlier publication year in brackets, follow it by the publication date of a later version used ( 1969)
A Guide on Writing a Bibliography
Structure: Last name first name of author. Publishing year. Heading (italicized). City, State/Country of Publisher: Publisher.
Sample: Welch, William E. 1999. Rhetoric. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press
Books by two or more authors
Format: Autor’s 1 last name first name, Author’s 2 first name last name and Author’s 3 first name, last name. Publication year. Title (italicized). State/Country of Publisher: Publisher.
Sample: Jayne, John D., and Robin M.Franklin, Jr. 1996. A General Destiny. Chicago: Academy Press.
Structure: Author’s last name first name. Year of publishing. Heading (italicized). City, State/Country of Publisher: Publisher. Retrieved Month Day, Year (page link).
Sample: Mitchell, Stacy. 2016. BigBox Swindle: True Cost of MegaRetailers and America’s Independent Business. Boston: Beacon Press. Retrieved July 26, 2015 (http://site.ebrary.com/lib/dixie/detail.action?docID=10175305&p00=home+depot)
Structure: Author’s last name first name. Year of publishing. Volume No. Volume Heading. City, State/Country of Publisher: Publisher.
Sample: Davis, Bill. 2006. Encyclopedia of the History of Rock. Vol. 7, Post-Grunge Times, 1991-2005. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Structure: Author’s last name first name. Year of publishing. “Heading of article” Journal name (italicized) Volume No (issue No): paging of article
Model: Garcia, Alma M., 1998. “An Intellectual Odyssey: Chicago/Chicago Studies Moving into the Twenty-first Century.” American Ethnic History Journal 18:109.
Articles available on the Internet
Structure: There are two possible variants for this kind of articles
- Author’s last name first name. Year of publishing. “Heading of the article” Journal name (italicized) Volume No (issue No): paging (if available) Retrieved Month Day, Year (URL).
- Author’s last name first name. Year of publishing. “Heading of the article” Journal name (italicized) Volume No (issue No): paging (if available). doi: number
- Johnson, Karen D., 2010. “Language of Hackerdom: Hacker Jargon.” Kairos 5(2). Retrieved March 23, 2005 (http://).
- Schafer, Daniel W., and Fred L. Ramsey. 2003. “The Craft of Data Analysis.” Journal of Statistics Education 11(1): 356-87. doi:10.1016/j.jco.2008.01.001.
Structure: Author’s last name first name. Year of publishing. “Heading” Newspaper name Publication Month Day p. or pp. for paging
Model: Lewin, Bob. 2015. “Are SAT Essay Scores in?” The New York Times, June 26, p. A26.
Structure: Author’s last name first name. Year of publishing. “Heading” Magazine name Publishing Month Day pp. for paging
Model: Swartz, Michael. 2012. “A Yard Sale.” New Yorker, May 16, pp. 40-42.
Structure: Author’s last name first name. Publishing date. Report Heading (italicized). Sponsoring organization (if there is any). Address of Sponsoring Organization: Publisher. Retrieved Month Day Year (URL)
Model: Snyder, Howard. 2012. Arrest, 1990-2010. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Oklahoma: Department of Justice. Retrieved November 29, 2012 (http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/aus9010.pdf).
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